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Healing Aspergers

 

Seven Streams to Wellness

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Recovering Our Kids

Children’s wellness recovery stories occur each day. ADD, ADHD, Asthma, allergies, autism, and autoimmune disorders are no longer the mysteries that they once were. Children across the world are breaking through the labels that formerly predisposed them to lifetimes full of symptom management.


We now know that by understanding the core of each child’s unique illness, their overall health can be drastically improved while you help your child peel away the layers of damage that appear as autism, allergies or related disorders.



Healthy Digestive System: The Key to Well-Being

I help you find the keys to re-discovering your own family’s well-being. I encourage you to begin by strengthening the digestive system, in part, as described by Donna Gates in the About Body Ecology. Ms. Gates found that probiotic healing foods, like young coconut kefir and cultured vegetables to reestablish the friendly bacteria that are necessary for overcoming the yeast, fungal and viral infections which afflict so many of our children.


Allow Me To Guide You On This Journey

So, whether you’ve come here because you just received a frustrating diagnosis or you’ve spent years searching for answers – I welcome you. I extend my hope for your family’s wellness. I share my support as you begin to embrace your own healing instincts. I help EDUCATE YOU on the latest modes of natural therapy that are working for so many.

You are now in a place where stereotypes about your children no longer exist. Join me in the mission of learning how to heal all of our babies!
 


The Foundation of my Journey with you:
HEALING THE GUT – BRAIN CONNECTION IN AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS & ASPERGERS

 

Introduction

 

Gut - Brain Axis

It’s NOT all in Their Head

Biofilm

Additional Thoughts

Healing the Gut Outline

            Pre~Cleanse Preparation ~ Purva Karma

            Full Cleanse ~ Palliative Pancha Karma

            Nutritive therapy ~ Rasayana

Herbal Intervention

            Improve Gut Absorption

Epigenetics
Genes
Methylation pathways
Nutrigenomics
Meditation ~ Polyvagal Theory and Coherent Breathing

Reference

Appendix 

Wikipedia: Human Biome  

Epigenetics Image 

Methylation Cycle
Dhatu-Tissue Image
U-Tube tutorials on ‘Poly Vagal Theory’
 

 

Gluten Free/Casein Free; Specific Carbohydrate

 

INTRODUCION 

 

Autistic Spectrum Disorder

“Autism Spectrum Disorder ~ ASD ~ is the fastest growing developmental disorder in the world today. The prevalence of autism in the US has risen from 1 in 2500 in 1970”*1, to “1 in 68 children in 2014”.* 2 Even more important; a 2014 study from Yale found that “1 in 38 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder”*3. Within that Yale study it was noted that many children – or their parents - within the school system do not even know that they are on the spectrum. 

 

‘Spectrum’ is referring to Autism as a continuum. A continuum that goes from a very severe disability at one end of the spectrum, up to being brilliant at the other end of the spectrum. It has been said in the TED talks *1a that “Einstein and Mozart and Tesla would all be probably diagnosed as autistic spectrum today” *1a.  It is theorized that many people from all walks of life are troubled with this disorder and they do not even realize it.

In and of itself, not knowing that you are on the spectrum is not a problem…until you start aging and the medical costs revolving around the mystery illness’s start accumulating, or until your quality of life has been substantially diminished as a result of those mystery illness’s, as this paper will illustrate. But that is the problem of adults, who have the conscious choices to change, if desired. What about the children? The undiagnosed children that are faced with mystery gut issues; behavioral issues; learning issues and more. Their lives could be significantly improved with specific nutritional and lifestyle regimens, such as those expressed within this paper.

“ASD has traditionally been framed as a behavioral disorder”*4. Yet those theories are quickly becoming outdated and replaced.  “…there is growing evidence that strongly suggests the need to focus on the GUT /microbiobiome”*5 “…as well as the GUT/ brain axis”*6. “Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behavior”*6. Simply stated: Demonstrations reveal that the bacteria in our guts have more influence on our health and diseased states than do our own genes, as will be explained in this paper.

“…Autism impacts many systems in the body, including the metabolic, mitochondrial, immunological, gastrointestinal and the neurological… In particular, clinical evidence exists that show increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune and mitochondrial dysfunction which can affect almost every cell in the body”*1.

Mitochondrial issues have especially been of high interest, because every living cell is effected with this dysfunction, including all of the organs.*7 The huge array of physiological/ biological/psychological symptoms in ASD is overwhelming the scientific community, and probably will for a quite some time to come. It has been shown ~ the world over ~ that many people have, and still do, experience the healthy end of the Aspergers spectrum due to the time tested results found in processes like Ayurveda ~ The Science of Life. These traditional techniques have shown, for the past 5000 years, how successful simple nutrition related factors*8 can be.

It may be far too optimistic to believe that the scientific community and federal agencies could agree or disagree on this topic. However, it is my proposal that we dare to delve into healthy lifestyle practices, such as those listed in this paper, to reap the positive rewards that they will have on millions of ASD people’s lives.

The following paper synthesizes more of the ASD scientific databases, in conjunction with the sharing of time tested ~ as well as scientifically backed~ tools used in ancient Ayurveda to relieve symptoms found within ASD. 

 

According to The College of Ayurveda, if you could make only one lifestyle change that could modify your health status, it should be to develop conscious eating habits:

1.       Food should be taken in clean, beautiful and calm surroundings 

2.     Say grace before eating  

3.      Chew your food slowly and thoroughly 

4.      Eat only till you are satisfied and not full or heavy 

5.      Drink only a small amount  ( ½ cup) of liquid with meals 

6.      While eating, avoid distractions 

7.      Avoid cold foods 

8.  Take largest meal at noon 

9.  Rest after eating

 

GUT/BRAIN AXIS - IT’S NOT ALL IN THEIR HEAD

A large portion of the Autistic behavioral research has previously focused solely on the brain. Recent studies are now showing the importance of focusing on the complex neurology within the gut, as well as the trillions of bacteria within the gut that influence the brain.

The communication capabilities between the vast numbers of neurons in the gut and the obviously large number of neurons in the brain has been known for quite some time. In fact, there are more neurons going to the brain from the gut than there are to the gut from the brain. What is becoming evident with increasing interest, however, is that the overlooked bacteria within our gut forms communities – known as microbiome. This microbiome within the gut communicates with our brain and influences our health in positive and negative ways. These influences are reflected in the physiological as well as psychological pathologies of populations including – but not limited to - ASD. This back and forth communication is known as the gut/brain axis. Theory suggests that a disturbed pathway to the gut/brain axis may contribute to mental disorders – including ASD.*1a, 1b, 1, 2, 5.

What disturbs this pathway? According to a large portion of the data found in PubMed and similar reference material, along with ancient wisdom: Unhealthy gut bacteria. There are many factors that contribute to unhealthy gut bacteria:

Ø  Impaired digestion*2a, which often leads to gut permeability*2b.

Ø  Much discussion revolves around the lack of pro and pre-biotics *2c *2d*2e. In fact, unhealthy gut flora has shown to have a direct correlation with autism*2f.

Ø  Excess body fat*2g.

Ø  Diet, including fast foods, as well as gluten sensitivity*2h.*2i

Ø  Stress*2j

Ø  Antibiotic exposure. *6

“A stable gut microbiota is essential for normal gut physiology and contributes to appropriate signaling along the brain–gut axis and to the healthy status of the individual”.2j Additionally, probiotics and healthy eating habits will help strengthen the individuals immune system.*7 When our immune system is functioning properly, there are far fewer risks in developing diseased state. Ayurveda’s Science of Life lists detailed procedures for developing and maintaining good health as well as correcting ill health.

A word of caution: When we consume junk food on a regular basis and contribute to an unhealthy microbiome, our will power to later overcome the junk food habit will then be decreased, and cravings will increased. The microbiome influences your decision making process, without your conscious awareness, in order to maintain their survival.*8a, 8b, 8

<Microbiome: See appendix>

Biofilm
When the harmful bacteria outnumber the healthy ones, we may then need to focus on gut permeability in order to keep toxic substances from entering the blood stream and our organs through the gut wall. These organisms create a substance called biofilm. Biofilm – a slimy substance - is the safe harbor for these organisms, making it extremely difficult for the medical professionals to detect them.*1, *2. Gut permeability is very common in the ASD community

 

Additional Thoughts

Ø  “Individuals with ASD whose families report gastrointestinal symptoms warrant a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation.

Ø  All of the common gastrointestinal conditions encountered by individuals with typical neurologic development are also present in individuals with ASDs.

Ø  The communication impairments characteristic of ASDs may lead to unusual presentations of gastrointestinal disorders, including sleep disturbances and problem behaviors.

Ø  Caregivers and health care professionals should be alert to the presentation of atypical signs of common gastrointestinal disorders in patients with ASDs.

Ø  If a person with an ASD is on a restricted diet, professional supervision can help to identify and treat nutritional inadequacy...

Ø  Genetic assays should be included as part of the data to be collected in research protocols.”*1 

 

HEALING THE GUT

Pancha Karma Basics
Ayurvedas’ time tested methodologies have very specific protocols for healing the mind, body and gut, via diet, lifestyle techniques and possible herbal interventions. One of the primary techniques for healing the unhealthy gut is through 5 cleansing actions - Pancha Karma. There is a precise science as to which procedures to follow, when to follow them and how.*2, *3

The three primary phases included are:

1.      Purva Karma – Preparation techniques

2.      Pradhan / Pancha Karma – Techniques for elimination of excess doshas and ama - toxins

3.      Praschat Karma – Post care for rebuilding healthy dhatus – tissues 

 

These methodologies are very specific, and require administration and oversight of a qualified practitioner.

1.    Pre~Cleanse Preperations ~ Purva Karma – prepares the body for Pancha Karma - a full cleanse. This involves the possibility of a well spiced mono diet, internal and external oleation (oil therapies), fomentation (heat therapies). The function of Purva karma will begin to draw many of the toxins out of body and back into the digestion for the actual Pancha Karma (proper elimination).

The ancient texts provide many valuable bits of information for proper eating habits, a few of which are listed below:

Ø  “Fills the stomach 1/3 with solid food, 1/3 with liquid food, leaving 1/3 of the doshas (empty).

Ø  Eat according to capacity of Agni/digestion

Ø  Heavy food-eat only to 1/3 – ½ the point of saturation.

Ø  The point of saturation depends on the strength of agni.”*1

These same ancient text provide a great deal of scientific data on foods. This information is extremely helpful in teaching how to maintain a healthy gut, and therefore a healthy being. One of which is listed below:

 

Incompatible tastes, potencies and chemical actions: Sweet and acid tastes, or sweet and saline tastes should be deemed incompatible to each other in respect of their potencies and inherent properties. Sweet and acrid tastes are incompatible to each other in all the above three respects. Similarly, sweet and bitter, or sweet and astringent things should be deemed incompatible to each other in respect of their tastes, and chemical action. Acid and saline things are incompatible to each other as regards their flavours. Acid and acrid things are incompatible as regards flavour and chemical action. Acid and bitter, or acid and astringent things, are incompatible to each other, both as regards their respective flavours, potencies, and digestive or chemical transformations.”
Pg 189 Shushruta Samhita CH XX

2.      Pancha / Predhan Karma, the 5 cleansing actions. These procedures, as all Ayurvedic procedure are, based on current health conditions as well as one’s specific dosha (body type). Pancha Karma is typically carried out at certain times of the year, in accordance with ama (toxins) and strength of ojas, yet we are not bound to those time frames. Pancha Karma is a particularly helpful practice to go through prior to pregnancy.*2 Additionally, it has been noted that the weak client must not perform a full cleanse – A gentle Palliative Pancha Karma may instead be utilized*1.

The processes of Pradhan – Pancha Karma, as listed in the California College of Ayurveda lecture notes:

a.       Vamana: Induced vomiting – Removes Kapha from stomach.

b.      Virechana: Induced diarrhea – Removes Pitta from the small intestine.

c.       Anuvasana basti: Oil enemas – Removes Vata from the colon.

d.      Niruha basti: Water decoction enemas: Removes Vata from the colon.

e.       Nasya: Deep nasal and sinus cleansing – Removes ama from the sinuses.

f.        Rakta mokshana: Bloodletting using leeches – Removes excess Pitta from the blood.

3.      Rasayana Therapy ~ Praschat karma is a very important follow up therapy, and is said to enhance healthful longevity. Rasayana therapy assures the rejuvenation of the body. This procedure includes a great deal of rest and relaxation. In fact, it is recommended that one dismisses themselves from all activity during the entire Pancha Karma process for maximum effectiveness. Also, the cleansing practices above must be done first in order to be effective. The California College of Ayurveda states that if the cleansing process is not completed first, the process would instead be referred to as general tonification – vajikarana therapy. Also, if a cleansing process is not completed first the ojas will not be strengthened.

Listed below are detailed samples of how the sages express their wisdom in the ancient texts.

Ø  According to the Sushrutas Samhita, Vol. 2 – Chapter XXV11. Pg 515: “A wise physician should (invariably) prescribe some sort of tonic (Rasayana) for his patients in their youth and middle age after having their systems (properly) cleansed by the applications of a Sneha and purifying remedies (emetics and purgatives). A person whose system has not been (previously) cleansed (Sodhana) with the proper purifying remedies (emetics and purgatives) should not, in any case, have recourse to such tonics inasmuch as they would fail to produce the wished-for result, just as the application of a dye to a piece of dirty cloth will prove non-effective.”

Ø  Furthermore, the Charaka Samhita Ci1.1#6-8 states that the Benefits of Rasayana (Promotive Treatment) as: “One attains longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from disorders, youthful age, excellence of lustre, complexion and voice, optimum strength of physique and sense organs, successful words, respectability and brilliance.”

Ø  The Charaka Samhita Ci1.1#8 Pg 441Defines Rasayana as: “Rasayana means the way for attaining excellent dhatus~tissues.”  

Ø  Another example in the Charaka Samhita, Si1#53-54 Pg. 322:This course of treatment is wholesome for the diseased as well as the healthy, promotes strength and life-span and destroys ailment. Charaka Samhita, Si1#53-54. Pg. 322…During this period one should avoid excessive sitting, standing and speaking, journey on vehicles, day-sleep, intercourse, suppression of natural urges, cold regimen, exposure to the sun, grief, wrath and taking unwholesome and untimely food.”

Herbal Intervention
Herbal interventions can be utilized in areas such as assisting digestion, sleep or nervousness. They can also be used in more serious health conditions that express pathologies, such as gut parasites or candida overgrowth. Ayurveda’s time honored herbal remedies have been used successfully for thousands of years, to eliminate the same type of illnesses that all ASD clients experience.

It is quite interesting to note how the ancient see’ers knew how to resolve health issues that today’s scientists are now proving to be accurate. Take, for instance, the gut/brain axis: The sages of old were very aware of the correlation between the gut and the brain. In fact, it was said that if you take a specific herb, such as “Vidanga, to irradiate (gut) worms, you will …improve memory and the power of comprehension....”*1

Referring back to the said herb to eradicate parasites, Vidanga, it is categorized as an Anthelmintic herb. Other herbs in this category include: “Andrographis*5, Pumpkin seed, Walnut hull, Pineapple weed herb, Wormwood herb, Knotgrass herb, Male fern root, Garlic bulb, Clove blub, Cinnamon bark, European and American wormseed, Rue herb, Tansy flower, Pink root and Annual wormwood herb.”*4 There are many useful herbs to take care of pathologies, however, none will be useful without proper eating and lifestyle habits.

Treatment of gut parasites must also address the issue of biofilm, even though anthelmintic herbs do touch upon the elimination of biofilm. As the medical community has come to know as common knowledge; bacteria will learn to adapt and survive medicinal treatments. Therefore we must approach the treatment aggressively.

Two herbs that are known to address biofilm are Cistus Incanus.*6, as well as Usnea.*7 Of course it is important to express the importance of combining herbs together for their potent synergetic effects. According to California College of Ayurveda, the general rule when combining herbs is to use:

Ø  4 Parts Chief

Ø  2 Parts Support

Ø  2 Parts Assist

Ø  1 Part Dipana

A word of caution: Specific herbs are potent acting and therefore must be used only under the direct supervision of qualified personnel. Herbal use in the wrong hands may cause severe consequences.  Of course that is not to say we cannot enjoy certain herbs on a regular basis, like digestive herbs: Cardamom, Cinnamon, Star Anise, Black Pepper, Caraway, and Fennel.
 

 

IMPROVING GUT ABSORPTION

Epigenetics and Autism: “Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, are complex entities that can be caused by biological and social factors.”*1 Biological factors include the food choices that we make; toxins that we are regularly exposed to, as well as our emotional makeup and thinking process.*2 The ancient science of Ayurveda (The Science of Life), has taught those same truths for thousands of years.

The new science behind Epigenetics states that our genes do not necessarily dictate the state of our health.*2 This has been a part of the great autistic mystery in the scientific community. For example: Two different people with very similar genetic variants can show very differently. One individual may exhibit severe autistic pathologies, while the other may appear to be completely healthy.

 

 
 

Though we cannot ever change our genetic makeup, we can alter the expression of them – determine their off/on status – simply by modifying our lifestyle habits*4. This means that we can make a difference as to whether or not we are affected by disease, with the proper lifestyle choices that we make.*3 This includes adhering to the ancient principles of Ayurveda, as depicted by Principles of Ayurveda, as depicted by California College of Ayurveda

 

Ø Disease is a reflection of the state of our consciousness and how we live.
Ø  Health is the end result of a harmonious lifestyle.
Ø  Health requires that we properly manage our five senses and make healthy choices…… that’s the hard part
Ø  It’s a science of personal responsibility.


Genes ~ Methylation Pathways
Methylation is the process by which genes express themselves. In other words, they are either turned on or off. Proper methylation can serve many important biological purposes such as suppressing potentially harmful viral genetic information. Influential factors on methylation are food, toxins, thought processes and newly discovered microbiome, which is the community of bacteria within our guts. A certain portion of the population are born with genetic variances - SNP’s – which results in the need for these people to practice healthier lifestyle habits in order to maintain or regain their health. There have been several genetic variances associated with autism.*1 Many of these are associated with metabolism rather than brain structure. With a challenged metabolism, the autistic person would have great difficulty maintaining gastro-intestinal health without specific lifestyle modifications.*1a

Additional genetic variances have been found in many of the mitochondrial functions as well. Mitochondria are the energy sources within each and every cell of the human body including in all organs. Therefore, with a mitochondrial dysfunctions the Autistic person may express many different symptoms and pathologies, making diagnosing very difficult.*2, *3

Many empirical studies have shown that specific nutritional habits that have been incorporated by the ASD person, which has greatly modified the expression of autistic pathologies - which brings us to the topic of nutrigenomics.*4, *5

Nutrigenomics
Nutrigenomics is the study of how nutrition can affect genes on a molecular level. Of particular importance is how nutrition can aid variant genes.  With a knowledge of nutrigenomics we can learn to bypass variant genes, therefore reducing if not eliminating many diseases and improving health through personalized nutrition.

Ayurvedic science has always noted the importance of personalized nutrition – nutrigenomics.  Ayurveda refers to this as Bhutagni.  Bhutagni is the aspect of Agni - the digestive fire - which resides in the liver and is responsible for transforming the molecular elements of food as earth, water, air, fire and either into the necessary tissues – or dhatus, as Ayurveda describes. These elements travel into the body to create;

1.      Plasma

2.      Blood

3.      Muscle

4.      Bone

5.      Marrow

6.      Reproductive tissue and lastly

7.      Ojas
 

Ayurveda teaches which foods will be directed to which areas of these tissues - dhatus. It is important to realize that the list just mentioned is consecutive, therefore if we do not have the necessary nutrients to create healthy plasma, for example, we will not have the necessary nutrients to properly supply blood, muscle, fat, bone, marrow, reproductive tissue or ojas. Or if the structure stops at the muscle, for instance, we will not have enough raw nutrient material to reach any of the remaining dhatus: muscle, bone, fat, marrow, reproductive tissue or ojas.*California College of Ayurveda

 
 

MEDITATION

Ancient wisdom has always advocated the importance of meditation. Western science is now beginning to understanding more clearly why this is.

Modulating brain wave techniques are of obvious importance, specifically: Alpha, Delta, Theta, Beta and Gamma. Utilizing this information extensively are the ‘Bio-feedback’ techniques. However, a relatively new area of significant importance is ‘The Polyvagal Theory’ as detailed by the originator of the theory – Stephen Porges.

Stephen Porges’ ‘Polyvagal Theory’, was first published in mid-1995*1, and continues to be “one of the most celebrated new developments in the science of human neurobiology. It offers an in-depth understanding of the human functioning,”*2 as expressed in his book: “The Polyvagal Theory”*1b.

It is becoming more and more clear to the scientific, medical and Alternative Healing communities – based on the ‘Polyvagal Theory’ – that many of the Autistic Spectrum Disorder characteristics can be resolved through the ideas within Polyvagal theory – “primarily breath work”*1 according to Porges.*1d

An organization that focuses on – among other things – bringing meditation and polyvagal theory into the lab is called ‘HeartMath.com/research’. The documented results are in the book: “Coherent Breathing” by Stephen Elliott & Dee Edmonson, RN.*1c This book shows how specific breathing exercises effect the myelinated vagal nerve, and so much more. To break this book down into the most absolute simplistic terms: The 6 second breath performed for approximately 20 minutes will completely balance your brain and body’s’ nervous system – creating coherence. This overly simplistic tool is absolutely ‘earth shaking’ for the ASD individual.

Though the Polyvagal Theory is quite relevant to the Autistic community*3, it is not only directed towards them. This work has shown to be effective to humanity as a whole – Yet another bit of wisdom that the ancient sages of old have known for thousands of years. Fortunately, science is now catching up with that wisdom.*1
 

Vagas Nerve 

 

“The new poly vagal system provides a neuro pathway that facilitates health,
growth and restoration through social interaction and cues to the other person that they are safe.”
*1d

It is commonly understood that there is an ‘un-myelinated vagal nerve’, which regulates gut and diaphragmatic organs. This is now referred to as the ‘old vagal nerve’. There is also a ‘new’ vagal nerve, which regulates the sub-diaphragmatic organs – lungs and heart. This nerve is myelinated. The ‘new’ nerve, according the Porge’s theory, is responsible for regulating heart expression, upper face, middle ear, larynx and pharynx – just to name a few. As a part of the Autonomic Nervous System, the ‘old’ un-myelinated vagas nerve acts almost in the opposite fashion to the ‘new’ myelinated nerve: When the un-myelinated nerve is active, the emotion of fear is active. In PERCEIVED life threatening situation, the ‘old’ vagal system surges – shuts down the body, which obviously includes the socialization aspect – a characteristic of ASD. This dis-regulated vagal system creates dis-regulation in the body and brain: IBS, personality disorder, also characteristics of ASD… which most of allopathic medicine then medicates to either stimulate or turn off the nervous system, instead of focusing on the neuro-regulatory system that evolved to keep our underlining homeostasis system in balance, yet sometimes recruited as a defense system. When the myelinated vagal nerve is active, the emotion of being safe is active. All of which are tied to the heart. This new system inhibits the sympathetic nervous system….until a threat is present.

According to Porges; specific breathing patterns will determine which nerve is active. Why does this matter to ASD? Here are just a few reasons:

1.      Food is more easily digested when the ‘new’ nerve is active, therefore gut health would be more of a possibility.

2.      A dis-regulated ‘old’ nerve results in gut abnormalities.

3.      An overactive fear factor hyper stimulates all senses in the body – something that the ASD has a lifetime struggle with.

4.      It is said in the Holistic circles: One cannot experience fear and love at the same time. What a blessed gift it would be for ASD people to be able to live from their hearts.

5.      Learning is not a strong possibility in an ASD fear based person.

6.      Social abilities would be more prevalent when not in the fear based state.

7.      Facial expressions would be more prominent in the ASD person, thereby assisting the social “norm” – It is known that people have an unknown fear of-ASD - people that have little to known facial expressions.

To stimulate the myelinated nerve: Activation occurs primarily during Exhalation, heart slows and vagal nerve is then activated. This can be easily achieved utilizing the “Coherent Breath-work” – 6/6 Breath. The basic procedures are as follows: Breath in through nose for 6 seconds without effort, out through mouth for 6 seconds without effort. When people just start this technique they are often not able to comfortably reach the 6 second mark. It is important NOT to exert effort, as this will be counterproductive.  Allow time to progress gently. This breath will also synchronize both sides of the brain and balance the oxygen to carbon dioxide ratio. Shallow and rapid breathing – as is the case with the flight of flight reaction - inhibits the myelinated nerve.

This breath-work, as well as Porges’ ‘Electronic Vagal Stimulator’ has been shown to release the hormones such as prolactin, vasopressin and oxytocin. This is quite significant to ASD, because the genes that regulate these hormones are known variants in the Autistic community.*4

The vagas nerve also: “…regulates metabolic homeostasis by controlling heart rate, gastrointestinal motility and secretion, pancreatic endocrine and…(the vagas nerve) controls innate immune responses and inflammation during pathogen invasion and tissue injury.” Valentin A. Pavlov, Ph.D

As you are beginning to see; the vagas nerve is extremely important to mind and body health. One of the most powerful ways known to regulate this nerve within the body is through various meditation and mindful living techniques.

*1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 3, 4.

Though the ancient sages had different names to the Western health modalities listed above, the healing processes that Western science is formulating are still the same. The difference is: Auyrveda has known of these healing modalities for thousands of years, and what a wonderful thing it is that The Science of Life – Ayurvedic - lifestyles are now proving to be more and more conducive to a disease free life.

 
 

REFRENCE MATERIAL: 

 
 

INTRODUCTION

Ø  1a - http://www.ted.com/talks/temple_grandin_the_world_needs_all_kinds_of_minds/transcript?language=en

Ø  1-Randolph-Gips and Srinivasan Modeling autism: a systems biology approach
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics 2012, 2:17
http://www.jclinbioinformatics.com/content/2/1/17

 

 
 

Abstract: Autism is the fastest growing developmental disorder in the world today. The prevalence of autism in the US has risen from 1 in 2500 in 1970 to 1 in 88 children today. People with autism present with repetitive movements and with social and communication impairments. These impairments can range from mild to profound. The estimated total lifetime societal cost of caring for one individual with autism is $3.2 million US dollars. With the rapid growth in this disorder and the great expense of caring for those with autism, it is imperative for both individuals and society that techniques be developed to model and understand autism. There is increasing evidence that those individuals diagnosed with autism present with highly diverse set of abnormalities affecting multiple systems of the body. To this date, little to no work has been done using a whole body systems biology approach to model the characteristics of this disorder. Identification and modelling of these systems might lead to new and improved treatment protocols, better diagnosis and treatment of the affected systems, which might lead to improved quality of life by themselves, and, in addition, might also help the core symptoms of autism due to the potential interconnections between the brain and nervous system with all these other systems being modeled. This paper first reviews research which shows that autism impacts many systems in the body, including the metabolic, mitochondrial, immunological, gastrointestinal and the neurological. These systems interact in complex and highly interdependent ways. Many of these disturbances have effects in most of the systems of the body. In particular, clinical evidence exists for increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune and mitochondrial dysfunction which can affect almost every cell in the body. Three promising research areas are discussed, hierarchical, subgroup analysis and modeling over time. This paper reviews some of the systems disturbed in autism and suggests several systems biology research areas. Autism poses a rich test bed for systems biology modeling techniques.

Ø  2 - http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0327-autism-spectrum-disorder.html

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1 in 68 children (or 14.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds) in multiple communities in the United States has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).  This new estimate is roughly 30 percent higher than previous estimates reported in 2012 of 1 in 88 children (11.3 per 1,000 eight year olds) being identified with an autism spectrum disorder. The number of children identified with ASD ranged from 1 in 175 children in Alabama to 1 in 45 children in New Jersey.

Ø  3 - Kim YS1, Leventhal BL, Koh YJ, Fombonne E, Laska E, Lim EC, Cheon KA, Kim SJ, Kim YK, Lee H, Song DH, Grinker RR.
Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a total population sample.
Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
young-shin.kim@yale.edu
Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;168(9):904-12. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10101532. Epub 2011 May 9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21558103

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Experts disagree about the causes and significance of the recent increases in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Limited data on population base rates contribute to this uncertainty. Using a population-based sample, the authors sought to estimate the prevalence and describe the clinical characteristics of ASDs in school-age children.

Ø  4-Daniel A. Rossignol and Richard E. Frye
Evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctin, and inflammation in the brain of individuals with autism.
published:22April2014 doi: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00150
http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fphys.2014.00150/abstract

Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are defined solely on   the basis of behavioral observations. Therefore, ASD has traditionally been framed as a behavioral disorder. However, evidence is                accumulating that ASD is characterized by certain physiological abnormalities, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation. While these abnormalities have been reported in studies that have examined peripheral biomarkers such as blood and urine, more recent studies have also reported these abnormalities in brain tissue derived from individuals diagnosed with ASD as compared to brain tissue derived from control individuals. A majority of these brain tissue studies have been published since 2010. The brain regions found to contain these physiological abnormalities in individuals with ASD are involved in speech and auditory processing, social behavior, memory, and sensory and motor coordination. This manuscript examines the evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation in the brain of ASD individuals, suggesting that ASD has a clear biological basis with features of known medical disorders. This understanding may lead to new testing and treatment strategies in individuals with ASD.

Ø  5 -Jennifer G. Mulle1,4, William G. Sharp2,3, and Joseph F. Cubells4,5
1Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health
2Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine
3Marcus Autism Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
4Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine
5Emory Autism Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine
The Gut Microbiobiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research
Published in final edited form as: Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013 February ; 15(2): 337. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0337-0.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=The+Gut+Microbiome%3A+A+New+Frontier+in+Autism+Research

Abstract
The human gut harbors a complex community of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of growth and development, including development of the nervous system. Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing methods have led to rapidly expanding knowledge about this gut microbiome. Here, we review fundamental emerging data on the human gut microbiome, with a focus on potential interactions between the microbiome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and consider research on atypical patterns of feeding and nutrition in ASD and how they might interact with the microbiome. Finally we selectively survey results from studies in rodents on the impact of the microbiome on neurobehavioral development. The evidence reviewed here suggests that a deeper understanding of the gut microbiome could open up new avenues of research on ASD, including potential novel treatment strategies.

Ø  6-Sue Grenham1, GerardClarke1,2, JohnF.Cryan1,3 andTimothyG.Dinan1,2
Brain–gut–microbe communication in health and disease
Front. Physiol., 07 December 2011 | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00094
http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fphys.2011.00094/abstract

Abstract: Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain–gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonization of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signaling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity, and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain–gut–enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behavior. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain–gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the center of focus for some time to come.

Ø  7-Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Molecular Psychiatry (2012) 17, 290–314 & 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved 1359-4184/12
www.nature.com/mp

Abstract:
A comprehensive literature search was performed to collate evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with two primary objectives. First, features of mitochondrial dysfunction in the general population of children with ASD were identified. Second, characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunction in children with ASD and concomitant mitochondrial disease (MD) were compared with published literature of two general populations: ASD children without MD, and non-ASD children with MD. The prevalence of MD in the general population of ASD was 5.0% (95% confidence interval 3.2, 6.9%), much higher than found in the general population (B0.01%). The prevalence of abnormal biomarker values of mitochondrial dysfunction was high in ASD, much higher than the prevalence of MD. Variances and mean values of many mitochondrial biomarkers (lactate, pyruvate, carnitine and ubiquinone) were significantly different between ASD and controls. Some markers correlated with ASD severity. Neuroimaging, in vitro and post-mortem brain studies were consistent with an elevated prevalence of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. Taken together, these findings suggest children with ASD have a spectrum of mitochondrial dysfunction of differing severity. Eighteen publications representing a total of 112 children with ASD and MD (ASD/MD) were identified. The prevalence of developmental regression (52%), seizures (41%), motor delay (51%), gastrointestinal abnormalities (74%), female gender (39%), and elevated lactate (78%) and pyruvate (45%) was significantly higher in ASD/MD compared with the general ASD population. The prevalence of many of these abnormalities was similar to the general population of children with MD, suggesting that ASD/MD represents a distinct subgroup of children with MD. Most ASD/MD cases (79%) were not associated with genetic abnormalities, raising the possibility of secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment studies for ASD/MD were limited, although improvements were noted in some studies with carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and B-vitamins. Many studies suffered from limitations, including small sample sizes, referral or publication biases, and variability in protocols for selecting children for MD workup, collecting mitochondrial biomarkers and defining MD. Overall, this evidence supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with ASD. Additional studies are needed to further define the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD.

8-Autism and nutrition: the role of the gut-brain axis.
van De Sande MM, van Buul VJ, Brouns FJ.
PMID: 25004237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004237

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by deficits in the ability to socialise, communicate and use imagination, and displays of stereotypical behaviour. It is widely accepted that ASD involves a disorder in brain development. However, the real causes of the neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD are not clear. In this respect, it has been found that a majority of children with ASD display gastrointestinal symptoms, and an increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, large differences in microbiotic composition between ASD patients and controls have been reported. Therefore, nutrition-related factors have been hypothesised to play a causal role in the aetiology of ASD and its symptoms. Through a review of the literature, it was found that abnormalities in carbohydrate digestion and absorption could explain some of the gastrointestinal problems observed in a subset of ASD patients, although their role in the neurological and behavioural problems remains uncertain. In addition, the relationship between an improved gut health and a reduction of symptoms in some patients was evaluated. Recent trials involving gluten-free diets, casein-free diets, and pre- and probiotic, and multivitamin supplementation show contradictive but promising results. It can be concluded that nutrition and other environmental influences might trigger an unstable base of genetic predisposition, which may lead to the development of autism, at least in a subset of ASD patients. Clear directions for further research to improve diagnosis and treatment for the different subsets of the disorder are provided.

 

 

 

 
 

IT’S NOT ALL IN THEIR HEADS

Ø  1a-OCTOBER 2013 DELHI PSYCHIATRY JOURNAL Vol. 16 No. 2
REVIEW ARTICLE published: 07December2011 doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00094

http://www.frontiersin.org/Physiology/editorialboard

 
 


 

Abstract
Human brain is a sophisticated neural network transmitting messages to all parts of body. The gastrointestinal tract contains trillions of bacteria which exert a powerful influence on brain. In fact, single-celled organisms-mostly bacteria---outnumber our own cells and most of them make their home in the gut. The gut, in tum, has evolved a stunningly complex neural network capable of leveraging this bacterial ecosystem for the sake of both physical and psychological well-being. The idea that bacteria teeming in the gut-collectively known as the microbiome can affect not only the gut, but also the mind has led to many clinical studies by renowned scientists. In the last few years only, evidence has mounted from studies in rodents that the gut microbiome can influence neural development, brain chemistry and a wide range of behavioral phenomena, including emotional behavior; pain perception and how the stress system responds. This paper reviews various studies on correlation between gut flora and psychological behavior.

 

Ø  1b-Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska1* and Romuald Zabielski2
*Address all correspondence to:
esulkowska@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

 
 


1 Dept. Psychiatry Harvard Medical School and BWH, USA
2 DDept. Physiological Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
http://www.intechopen.com/books/recent-advances-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-volume-i/gut-microbiome-and-brain-gut-axis-in-autism-aberrant-development-of-gut-brain-communication-and-reward

Abstract
The function of the gut microbiome and the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the brain is increasingly recognized in health and disease and disruption in its composition is not unique to the autistic pathology. However, the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, “the gut-brain/brain-gut axis” in autism has been relatively understudied. In general, this communication between gut and brain occurs through a direct neuronal pathway via the vagus nerve, the hormonal pathway of several hormones involved in the regulation of food intake, such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, leptin and insulin, and by the immunological signaling pathway involving cytokines. Recent studies indicate that the vagus nerve is involved in immunomodulation as suggested by its ability to attenuate the production of proinflammatory cytokines in experimental models of inflammation (de Jonge and Ullola, 2007). Furthermore, the gut microbiome emerges as a major player not only in the maturation of GIT tissue and the gut brain axis but also in brain maturation, through its effect on both the immune and endocrine systems. Many toxins, toxicants, infectious agents, diet or stress, affect an individual’s gut microbiome, which may be especially sensitive during the critical developmental period. Disruption of the developing microbiome may have profound consequences on the developing gut-brain axis including the brain as well as long-term effects on both the physical and psychological development.

Ø  1-The neuro-immune axis: prospect for novel treatments for mental disorders.
Kraneveld AD1, de Theije CG, van Heesch F, Borre Y, de Kivit S, Olivier B, Korte M, Garssen J.
© 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
PMID: 24118847 [PubMed - in process]

Abstract
Disturbed bidirectional pathways between the (central) nervous system and immune system have been implicated in various mental disorders, including depressive and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this minireview, the role of the neuro-immune axis and its targetability in relation to major depression and autism spectrum disorder will be discussed. All together, the management of these and possibly other multi-factorial mental disorders needs a new and integrated therapeutic approach. Pharmacologically bioactive molecules as well as medical nutrition targeting the (gut)-immune-brain axis could be such an approach.

Ø  2-Sue Grenham1, GerardClarke1,2, JohnF.Cryan1,3 andTimothyG.Dinan1,2
Brain–gut–microbe communication in health and disease
Front. Physiol., 07 December 2011 | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00094
http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fphys.2011.00094/abstract

Abstract: Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain–gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonization of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signaling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity, and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain–gut–enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behavior. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain–gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the center of focus for some time to come.

2a-Williams BL, Hornig M, Buie T, Bauman ML, Cho Paik M, et al. (2011) Impaired Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport and Mucosal Dysbiosis in the Intestines of Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Disturbances. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024585

Abstract
Gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported in children with autism, complicate clinical management, and may contribute to behavioral impairment. Reports of deficiencies in disaccharidase enzymatic activity and of beneficial responses to probiotic and dietary therapies led us to survey gene expression and the mucoepithelial microbiota in intestinal biopsies from children with autism and gastrointestinal disease and children with gastrointestinal disease alone. Ileal transcripts encoding disaccharidases and hexose transporters were deficient in children with autism, indicating impairment of the primary pathway for carbohydrate digestion and transport in enterocytes. Deficient expression of these enzymes and transporters was associated with expression of the intestinal transcription factor, CDX2. Metagenomic analysis of intestinal bacteria revealed compositional dysbiosis manifest as decreases in Bacteroidetes, increases in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increases in Betaproteobacteria. Expression levels of disaccharidases and transporters were associated with the abundance of affected bacterial phylotypes. These results indicate a relationship between human intestinal gene expression and bacterial community structure and may provide insights into the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disturbances in children with autism.

Ø  2b-The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 173, No. 5, November 2008
(Am J Pathol 2008, 173:1243–1252; DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2008.080192)

Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology
DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2008.080192

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2570116/

ABSTRACT
The anatomical and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract suggests that this organ, beside its digestive and absorptive functions, regulates the trafficking of macromolecules between the environment and the host through a barrier mechanism. Under physiological circumstances, this trafficking is safeguarded by the competency of intercellular tight junctions, structures whose physiological modulation is mediated by, among others, the recently described protein zonulin. To prevent harm and minimize inflammation, the same paracellular pathway, in concert with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to nonself antigens. The zonulin pathway has been exploited to deliver drugs, macromolecules, or vaccines that normally would not be absorbed through the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. However, if the tightly regulated trafficking of macromolecules is jeopardized secondary to prolonged zonulin up-regulation, the excessive flow of nonself antigens in the intestinal submucosa can cause both intestinal and extraintestinal autoimmune disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of autoimmunity, which are based on molecular mimicry and/or the bystander effect, and suggests that the autoimmune process can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by reestablishing intestinal barrier competency. Understanding the role of zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is an area of translational research that encompasses many fields.

Ø  2c-Ther Adv Gastroenterol (2013) 6(1) 39–51 DOI: 10.1177/1756283X12459294© The Author(s), 2012.
Reprints and permissions: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav

ABSTRACT
Recent explorations of the human gut microbiota suggest that perturbations of microbial communities may increase predisposition to different disease phenotypes. Dietary nutrients may be converted into metabolites by intestinal microbes that serve as biologically active molecules affecting regulatory functions in the host. Probiotics may restore the composition of the gut microbiome and introduce beneficial functions to gut microbial communities, resulting in amelioration or prevention of gut inflammation and other intestinal or systemic disease phenotypes. This review describes how diet and intestinal luminal conversion by gut microbes play a role in shaping the structure and function of intestinal microbial communities. Proposed mechanisms of probiosis include alterations of composition and function of the human gut microbiome, and corresponding effects on immunity and neurobiology.

Ø  2d-Gut Microbes 4:1, 17–27; January/February 2013; © 2013 Landes Bioscience

ABSTRACT
The brain-gut axis allows bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS), linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Recent experimental work suggests that the gut microbiota have an impact on the brain-gut axis. A group of experts convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) discussed the role of gut bacteria on brain functions and the implications for probiotic and prebiotic science. The experts reviewed and discussed current available data on the role of gut microbiota on epithelial cell function, gastrointestinal motility, visceral sensitivity, perception and behavior. Data, mostly gathered from animal studies, suggest interactions of gut microbiota not only with the enteric nervous system but also with the central nervous system via neural, neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and humoral links. Microbial colonization impacts mammalian brain development in early life and subsequent adult behavior. These findings provide novel insights for improved understanding of the potential role of gut microbial communities on psychological disorders, most particularly in the field of psychological comorbidities associated with functional bowel disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and should present new opportunity for interventions with pro- and prebiotics.

Ø  2e-Kang D-W, Park JG, Ilhan ZE, Wallstrom G, LaBaer J, et al. (2013) Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children. PLoS ONE 8(7): e68322. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068322

ABSTRACT
High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes.

Ø  2f-Adams et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2011, 11:22
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-230X/11/22

Conclusions:
The strong correlation of gastrointestinal symptoms with autism severity indicates that children with more severe autism are likely to have more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and vice versa. It is possible that autism symptoms are exacerbated or even partially due to the underlying gastrointestinal problems. The low level of SCFA’s was partly associated with increased probiotic use, and probably partly due to either lower production (less sacchrolytic fermentation by beneficial bacteria and/or lower intake of soluble fiber) and/or greater absorption into the body (due to longer transit time and/or increased gut permeability).

Ø  2g-Obesity as a Consequence of Gut Bacteria and Diet Interactions Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Obesity
Volume 2014, Article ID 651895, 8 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/651895
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963190/

ABSTRACT
Obesity is a major public health concern, caused by a combination of increased consumption of energy-dense foods and reduced physical activity, with contributions from host genetics, environment, and adipose tissue inflammation. In recent years, the gut microbiome has also been found to be implicated and augmented research in mice and humans have attributed to it both the manifestation and/or exacerbation of thismajor epidemic and vice versa.At the experimental level, analysis of fecal samples revealed a potential link between obesity and alterations in the gut flora (drop in Bacteroidetes and increase in Firmicutes), the specific gut microbiome being associated with the obese phenotype. Conventionally raised mice were found to have over 40% more total body fat compared with those raised under germ-free conditions, while conventionalization of germ-free mice resulted in a significant increase in total body fat. Similarly, the sparse data in humans supports the fact that fat storage is favoured by the presence of the gut microbiota, through amultifaceted mechanism. Efforts to identify new therapeutic strategies tomodulate gut microbiota would be of high priority for public health, and to date, probiotics and/or prebiotics seem to be the most effective tools.

Ø  2h-Celiac Disease Pathophysiology
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2012 October ; 22(4): . doi:10.1016/j.giec.2012.07.003.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872820/

Introduction
Celiac disease is an intestinal inflammatory disease that is triggered by dietary gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals.1 Descriptions of a celiac disease-like phenotype can be traced back to the Greek physician Aretaeus in the 1st and 2nd century AD (reviewed in 2). Gluten was identified as the culprit of celiac disease by Dutch physicians who observed that, during the 1944–45 famine when wheat and rye were scarce, celiac children symptomatically improved.3 Subsequent studies characterized many features of celiac disease, and, while disease pathogenesis and pathophysiology remain incompletely understood, the disease is thought to arise from the interplay of genetic, environmental and immunological factors (Figure 1). Importantly, understanding of celiac disease pathophysiology, in which the trigger (wheat, rye and barley) is known, will undoubtedly reveal basic mechanisms that underlie other autoimmune diseases (e.g., type I diabetes) that share many common pathogenic perturbations. In this review, we describe seminal findings in each of the three domains of celiac disease pathogenesis: genetics, environmental triggers and immune dysregulation with a focus on newer areas of investigation such as non-HLA genetic variants, intestinal microbiome and the role of the innate immune system

Ø  2i-Myles Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:61 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074336/

ABSTRACT
While numerous changes in human lifestyle constitute modern life, our diet has been gaining attention as a potential contributor to the increase in immune-mediated diseases. The Western diet is characterized by an over consumption and reduced variety of refined sugars, salt, and saturated fat. Herein our objective is to detail the mechanisms for the Western diet’s impact on immune function. The manuscript reviews the impacts and mechanisms of harm for our over-indulgence in sugar, salt, and fat, as well as the data outlining the impacts of artificial sweeteners, gluten, and genetically modified foods; attention is given to revealing where the literature on the immune impacts of macronutrients is limited to either animal or in vitro models versus where human trials exist. Detailed attention is given to the dietary impact on the gut microbiome and the mechanisms by which our poor dietary choices are encoded into our gut, our genes, and are passed to our offspring. While today’s modern diet may provide beneficial protection from micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, our over abundance of calories and the macronutrients that compose our diet may all lead to increased inflammation, reduced control of infection, increased rates of cancer, and increased risk for allergic and auto-inflammatory disease.

Ø  2j-REVIEW ARTICLE published: 07December2011 doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00094
http://www.frontiersin.org/Physiology/editorialboard
 

Ø  3-The enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal innervation: integrated local and central control.
Furness JB1, Callaghan BP, Rivera LR, Cho HJ.
PMID: 24997029 [PubMed - in process]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997029

Abstract
The digestive system is innervated through its connections with the central nervous system (CNS) and by the enteric nervous system (ENS) within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The ENS works in concert with CNS reflex and command centers and with neural pathways that pass through sympathetic ganglia to control digestive function. There is bidirectional information flow between the ENS and CNS and between the ENS and sympathetic prevertebral ganglia.The ENS in human contains 200-600 million neurons, distributed in many thousands of small ganglia, the great majority of which are found in two plexuses, the myenteric and submucosal plexuses. The myenteric plexus forms a continuous network that extends from the upper esophagus to the internal anal sphincter. Submucosal ganglia and connecting fiber bundles form plexuses in the small and large intestines, but not in the stomach and esophagus. The connections between the ENS and CNS are carried by the vagus and pelvic nerves and sympathetic pathways. Neurons also project from the ENS to prevertebral ganglia, the gallbladder, pancreas and trachea.The relative roles of the ENS and CNS differ considerably along the digestive tract. Movements of the striated muscle esophagus are determined by neural pattern generators in the CNS. Likewise the CNS has a major role in monitoring the state of the stomach and, in turn, controlling its contractile activity and acid secretion, through vago-vagal reflexes. In contrast, the ENS in the small intestine and colon contains full reflex circuits, including sensory neurons, interneurons and several classes of motor neuron, through which muscle activity, transmucosal fluid fluxes, local blood flow and other functions are controlled. The CNS has control of defecation, via the defecation centers in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The importance of the ENS is emphasized by the life-threatening effects of some ENS neuropathies. By contrast, removal of vagal or sympathetic connections with the gastrointestinal tract has minor effects on GI function. Voluntary control of defecation is exerted through pelvic connections, but cutting these connections is not life-threatening and other functions are little affected.

Ø  4-The neuro-immune axis: prospect for novel treatments for mental disorders. Kraneveld AD1, de Theije CG, van Heesch F, Borre Y, de Kivit S, Olivier B, Korte M, Garssen J.
© 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
PMID: 24118847 [PubMed - in process]

Abstract
Disturbed bidirectional pathways between the (central) nervous system and immune system have been implicated in various mental disorders, including depressive and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this minireview, the role of the neuro-immune axis and its targetability in relation to major depression and autism spectrum disorder will be discussed. All together, the management of these and possibly other multi-factorial mental disorders needs a new and integrated therapeutic approach. Pharmacologically bioactive molecules as well as medical nutrition targeting the (gut)-immune-brain axis could be such an approach.

Ø  5-IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2013. The human microbiome, diet, and health: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press

Ø  6-same, pg 93

Ø  7-Gut Microbes 4:1, 17–27; January/February 2013; © 2013 Landes Bioscience - The intestinal microbiome, probiotics and prebiotics in neurogastroenterology.

ABSTRACT
The brain-gut axis allows bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS), linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Recent experimental work suggests that the gut microbiota have an impact on the brain-gut axis. A group of experts convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) discussed the role of gut bacteria on brain functions and the implications for probiotic and prebiotic science. The experts reviewed and discussed current available data on the role of gut microbiota on epithelial cell function, gastrointestinal motility, visceral sensitivity, perception and behavior. Data, mostly gathered from animal studies, suggest interactions of gut microbiota not only with the enteric nervous system but also with the central nervous system via neural, neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and humoral links. Microbial colonization impacts mammalian brain development in early life and subsequent adult behavior. These findings provide novel insights for improved understanding of the potential role of gut microbial communities on psychological disorders, most particularly in the field of psychological comorbidities associated with functional bowel disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and should present new opportunity for interventions with pro- and prebiotics.

Ø  8-The Abdominal Brain and Enteric Nervous System
David L. McMillin, Douglas G. Richards, Eric A. Mein, and Carl D. Nelson. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. December 1999, 5(6): 575-586. doi:10.1089/acm.1999.5.575.
http://meridianinstitute.com/ceu/ceu12abd.html

ABSTRACT
Conventional medical treatment for neurologic disorders such as epilepsy, migraine, and autism focuses on the brain. Although standard medical treatment is often helpful, the underlying causes of these disorders are not well understood. Furthermore, some individuals respond poorly or not at all to regular medicine. Evidence is accumulating in the medical literature that the enteric nervous system (ENS)—that part of the nervous system associated with the alimentary canal—also plays a role in these disorders. Historically, the concept of an autonomous abdominal nervous system was advocated by Byron Robinson, Johannis Langley, and Edgar Cayce. The work of these three prominent historical figures is considered along with modern viewpoints on the abdominal nervous system. Complementary therapies that address the nervous system of the abdomen have potential as useful adjuncts to conventional treatment for certain neurologic disorders.

Ø  8a- http://meridianinstitute.com/ceu/ceu12abd.html
(Robinson, 1907, pp. 123 - 126).

"In mammals there exist two brains of almost equal importance to the individual and race.  One is the cranial brain, the instrument of volitions, of mental progress and physical protection.  The other is the abdominal brain, the instrument of vascular and visceral function.  It is the automatic, vegetative, the subconscious brain of physical existence.  In the cranial brain resides the consciousness of right and wrong.  Here is the seat of all progress, mental and moral ... However, in the abdomen there exists a brain of wonderful power maintaining eternal, restless vigilance over its viscera.  It presides over organic life.  It dominates the rhythmical function of viscera....The abdominal brain is a receiver, a reorganizer, an emitter of nerve forces.  It has the power of a brain.  It is a reflex center in health and disease.... The abdominal brain is not a mere agent of the [cerebral] brain and cord; it receives and generates nerve forces itself; it presides over nutrition.  It is the center of life itself.  In it are repeated all the physiologic and pathologic manifestations of visceral function (rhythm, absorption, secretion, and nutrition)" 

Ø  8b-Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;817:373-403. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0897-4_17.
The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential.

Borre YE1, Moloney RD, Clarke G, Dinan TG, Cryan JF

 
 

.
PMID: 24997043 [PubMed - in process]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997043

Abstract
There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.


 

 

 
 

BIOFILM

 

 
 

Ø  1-2014 Natural Medicine Journal (ISSN 2157-6769) August 2014 Vol. 6 Issue 8
Stress, biofilms, and cardiovascular disease
By Jacob Schor, ND, FABNO, and Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO

Key Findings
All carotid artery samples from all 15 patients were found to contain eubacterial rRNA sequences. Each of the 5 carotid arteries tested in greater depth were found to have 10 to 18 unique 16S rRNA gene signatures, indicating colonization by multiple types of bacteria. Comparison of the samples revealed 8 bacterial signatures that were common to all 5 patients and multiple additional sequences present in some but not all of the 5 patients.

Ø  2-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofilm

 

 

 

 
 

ADDITIONAL THOUGHTS

Ø  1-Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-1878C Pediatrics 2010;125;S1 Barry K. Wershil, Sharon C. Weston, Lonnie Zeltzer and Harland Winter Levy, Jeffery D. Lewis, Katherine F. Murray, Marvin R. Natowicz, Aderbal Sabra, Jirapinyo, Harumi Jyonouchi, Koorosh Kooros, Rafail Kushak, Pat Levitt, Susan E. Arthur L. Beaudet, Edward G. Carr, Michael D. Gershon, Susan L. Hyman, Pipop Levy, Judy VandeWater, Agnes H. Whitaker, Dan Atkins, Margaret L. Bauman
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/Supplement_1/S1.full.html

CONCLUSIONS:
Medical disorders, including gastrointestinal problems, occur commonly in individuals with ASDs, but because symptoms may be atypical, these medical conditions may be undiagnosed. Whether the prevalence is higher than in the general population is not known with certainty, because prospective well-controlled studies are unavailable. Many parents and care providers have observed and reported improvements in problem behaviors with nutritional or medical interventions. Some of these therapies are based on purely observational reports; many are based on studies that may have reached erroneous conclusions because of recruitment bias, lack of validated or standardized outcomes, or inadequate controls. In this document we focused on gastrointestinal disorders and related conditions including allergy, inflammation, metabolic disease, genetics, and nutrition. The care of individuals who are nonverbal or have difficulties in communication or who display self-injurious or other problem behaviors presents special challenges. Nevertheless, the approach to evaluation and diagnosis of possible underlying medical conditions, in particular gastrointestinal disorders, should be no different from the standard of care for persons without ASDs. Management of co-occurring gastrointestinal problems in individuals with ASDs usually begins with the primary care provider and may eventually warrant multidisciplinary consultation. Anecdotal reports that restricted diets may ameliorate symptoms of ASDs in some children have not been supported or refuted in the scientific literature, but these data do not address the possibility that there exists a subgroup of individuals who may respond to such diets. Professional supervision of restricted diets is recommended to prevent nutritional inadequacies. Future research is expected to clarify the role of metabolic disorders, allergic/ toxic reactions, immune dysregulation, and inflammatory changes in the etiology of gastrointestinal disturbances in individuals with ASDs. Whether unique genetic, metabolic, or physiologic conditions exist and are specific to ASDs remains to be determined. Accrual of new knowledge will advance our approach to the management of ASDs and co-occurring medical conditions. Recognition that problem behaviors might indicate an underlying medical condition will facilitate diagnosis and treatment and ultimately improve the quality of life for many persons with ASDs. This expert panel has addressed considerations in the diagnostic evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with ASDs that may lead to effective treatment options, with the hope that patients will have better access to enlightened care. Important take-away messages are summarized in Table 6, and areas that are in need of new knowledge are identified in Table 7.

 

 

 

 
 

HEALING THE GUT

Ø  1-Vidanga-Rasayana :—The powdered seeds of the Vidanga (Tandula) and pulverized Yashti-madliu should be mixed together and taken in cold water in an adequate dose (according to the strength of the patient), and a potion of cold water should then be taken. This medicine should be regularly continued for a month. The same pulverized Vidanga seeds should be similarly taken for a month through the vehicle of the decoction oi Bhallataka mixed with honey; or of the decoction of grapes mixed with honey ; or with the expressed juice of Amalaka sweetened with honey ; or through the vehicle of the decoction of Guduchi. Thus there are these five ways (of taking pulverized Vidanga seeds (Tandula) as an elixir. A meal of boiled rice with a copious quantity of clarified butter should be taken with the soup of Amalaka and Mudga pulse unseasoned with salt and cooked with only a small quantity of Sneha (clarified butter) after the medicine has been well digested. These (Rasayana) remedies prove curative in cases of hemorrhoids and in complaints of worms. They improve memory and the power of comprehension and their use for every month increases the life-time of the user by one hundred years. CHAPTER XXVII. Pg 516 Sushrutas Samhita Vol 2

Ø  2-Charaka Samhita; Pancha Karma Section One should get his accumulation of doshas evacuated (Pancha Karma) in the first month of spring, rainy season and winter. [So, 3 times per year, at least in the Indian seasons.] P.K. should be followed by rasayanas and aphrodisiacs in order and according to suitability. [‘In order’ refers to: 1st- p.k., 2nd- rasayanas, then 3rdaphrodisiacs, in that order.]
Thus, dhatus having been stabilized in normal condition, diseases do not arise, dhatus are promoted and aging is slowed down. This is done yearly as part  of the program to prevent disease.Su7#46-50

Ø  3-Characteristics in vitiation: roughness, coldness, lightness, non-sliminess, motion, formlessness, and instability. Producing these actions: separation, dislocation, division, attachment, tearing malaise, exhilaration, thirst, tremors, circumvention, looseness, piercing pain, pain , movement, etc.. Also coarseness, roughness, nonsliminess, porousness, reddish lustre, astringent taste, tastelessness, wasting, pain, numbness, contraction, stiffness, limping, etc.. -Su20#12

Ø  4-“The Energetics of Western Herbs – A Materia Medica Integrating Western & Chinese Herbal Therapeutics – Vol 2” Peter Holmesby  Pg 840

Ø  5-“Healing Lyme- Natural Healing and Prevention of Lyme Borreliosis and Its Co-infections” 2010 by Stephen Harrod Buhner pg 77

Ø  6- http://www.healingwell.com/community/?f=30&m=2546544

Ø  7-“Herbal Antibiotics-The Natural Altenatives For Treating Drug-Resistant Bacteria” 2012 by Stephen Harrod Buhner Pg197
 

 

 

 
 

EPIGENETICS AND AUTISM

Ø  1a-www.holisticheal.com/autism-pathways-to-recovery-esp.html
‘Digital Book by Amy Yasko’

 

Ø  1-Epigenetics as a basis for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders: challenges and opportunities. Kubota T1, Miyake K, Hariya N, Mochizuki K. 1Department of Epigenetic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.

Abstract
Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, are complex entities that can be caused by biological and social factors. In a subset of patients with congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, clear diagnosis can be achieved using DNA sequence-based analysis to identify changes in the DNA sequence (genetic variation). However, it has recently become clear that changes to the secondary modifications of DNA and histone structures (epigenetic variation) can also cause neurodevelopmental disorders via alteration of neural gene function. Moreover, it has recently been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are more susceptible to alterations induced by environmental factors than are DNA sequences, and that some drugs commonly used reverse mental-stress induced alterations to histone modifications in neural genes. Therefore, application of diagnostic assays to detect epigenetic alterations will provide new insight into the characterization and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Ø  2-From Genes to Environment: Using integrative genomics to build a “systems level” understanding of autism spectrum disorders Valerie W. Hu, Ph.D. [Professor]
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC 20037

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders that affect an estimated 1 in 110 individuals. Although there is a strong genetic component associated with these disorders, this review focuses on the multi-factorial nature of ASD and how different genomewide (genomic) approaches contribute to our understanding of autism. Emphasis is placed on the need to study defined ASD phenotypes as well as to integrate large-scale ‘omics’ data in order to develop a “systems level” perspective of ASD which, in turn, is necessary to allow predictions regarding responses to specific perturbations and interventions.

Ø  3- Experience-dependent Epigenetic Modifications in the CNS J. David Sweatt
Department of Neurobiology and Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090137/

Abstract
This mini-review describes recent discoveries demonstrating that experience can drive the production of epigenetic marks in the adult nervous system, and that the experience-dependent regulation of epigenetic molecular mechanisms in the mature CNS participates in the control of gene transcription underlying the formation of long-term memories. In the mammalian experimental systems investigated thus far, epigenetic mechanisms have been linked to associative fear conditioning, extinction of learned fear, and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory formation. Intriguingly, in one experimental system epigenetic marks at the level of chromatin structure (histone acetylation) have been linked to the recovery of memories that had appeared to be “lost”, i.e. not available for recollection. Environmental enrichment has long been known to have positive effects on memory capacity, and recent studies have suggested that these effects are at least partly due to the recruitment of epigenetic mechanisms by environmental enrichment.

Ø  4- Randolph-Gips and Srinivasan Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics 2012 2:17   doi:10.1186/2043-9113-2-17
WWW.JCLINBIOINFORMATICS.COM/CONTENT/2/1/17

Abstract:
Several genetic variants have been associated with increased risk for autism. The variants found so far are mostly associated with differences in the metabolism, rather than in brain structure. The MET promoter variant rs1858830 allele “C”, found at increased rates in autism, is associated with neuronal growth and development, but also is involved in immune function and gastrointestinal repair [
19,20]. The fact that this genetic variant is present in 47% of the general population gives credence to the assertion that there is an environmental component to the development of autism. Many of the genetic variants at increased prevalence in autism are associated with the folic acid, transmethylation and transsulfuration metabolic pathways. Some of these genes are MTHFR, COMT, GST, RFC and TCN2. As with the MET variant, these are common in the general population. These variants decrease the activity of enzymes and decrease the efficiency of the body’s ability to resolve oxidative stress, methylate genes and detoxify exogenous and endogenous toxins [21].”

Ø  5-The extended nutrigenomics – understanding the interplay between the genomes of food, gut microbes, and human host Front. Genet., 19 May 2011 | doi: 10.3389/fgene.2011.00021
http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fgene.2011.00021/abstract

ABSTRACT
Comprehensive investigation of nutritional health effects at the molecular level requires the understanding of the interplay between three genomes, the food, the gut microbial, and the human host genome. Food genomes are researched for discovery and exploitation of macro- and micronutrients as well as specific bioactives, with those genes coding for bioactive proteins and peptides being of central interest. The human gut microbiota encompasses a complex ecosystem in the intestine with profound impact on host metabolism. It is being studied at genomic and, more recently, also at proteomic and metabonomic level. Humans are being characterized at the level of genetic pre-disposition and inter-individual variability in terms of (i) response to nutritional interventions and direction of health trajectories; (ii) epigenetic, metabolic programming at certain life stages with health consequences later in life and even for subsequent generations; and (iii) acute genomic expression as a holistic response to diet, monitored at gene transcript, protein and metabolite level. Modern nutrition science explores health-related aspects of bioactive food components, thereby promoting health, preventing, or delaying the onset of disease, optimizing performance and assessing benefits and risks in individuals and subpopulations. Personalized nutrition means adapting food to individual needs, depending on the human host’s life stage, -style, and –situation. Traditionally, nutrigenomics and mphas(epi)genetics are seen as the key sciences to understand human variability in preferences and requirements for diet as well as responses to nutrition. This article puts the three nutrition and health-relevant genomes into perspective, namely the food, the gut microbial and the human host’s genome, and calls for an “extended nutrigenomics” approach in order to build the future tools for personalized nutrition, health maintenance, and disease prevention. We discuss examples of these genomes, proteomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes under the definition of genomics as the overarching term covering essentially all Omics rather than the sole study of DNA and RNA.

 

 

 
 

MEDITATION

Ø  1-Biol Psychol. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1, 2008. Published in final edited form as: Biol Psychol. Feb 2007; 74(2): 116–143.  Published online Oct 16, 2006. Doi:  10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.009
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1868418/#R55

Abstract
The Polyvagal Theory introduced a new perspective relating autonomic function to behavior that included an appreciation of autonomic nervous system as a “system,” the identification of neural circuits involved in the regulation of autonomic state, and an interpretation of autonomic reactivity as adaptive within the context of the phylogeny of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. The paper has two objectives: First, to provide an explicit statement of the theory; and second, to introduce the features of a polyvagal perspective. The polyvagal perspective emphasizes how an understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms and phylogenetic shifts in neural regulation, leads to different questions, paradigms, explanations, and conclusions regarding autonomic function in biobehavioral processes than peripheral models. Foremost, the polyvagal perspective emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic changes in the neural structures regulating the autonomic nervous system and how these phylogenetic shifts provide insights into the adaptive function and the neural regulation of the two vagal systems

Ø  1b- The Polyvagal Theory - Neurophysiological Foundatons Of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, And Self-Regulation Porges, Stephen W. Published by W. W. Norton & Company (2011-04-25) ISBN 10: 0393707008 / ISBN 13: 9780393707007
 

Ø  1c-“Coherent Breathing-The Definitive Method Theory and Practice” 2008 by Stephen Elliott & Dee Edmonson, RN
 

Ø  1d- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYXa_BX2cE8&index=2&list=PLCw9MZ6l8srW97TR299n9j-Du6Br434wY
 

Ø  1e- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYXa_BX2cE8&index=2&list=PLCw9MZ6l8srW97TR299n9j-Du6Br434wY

Ø  3- http://www.austininconnection.org/documents/Gainanniversaryinterview-1.pdf-

…individuals with autism have lower thresholds to noise, sound, and light. They are hypersensitive to sound. They may even have a dampened pupillary reflex–the eyes may be more dilated. Basically, most children with autism spectrum disorders are in a physiological state of mobilization. When in this state, the pupils will be more dilated and the middle ear muscles will not be working as well. When the pupils are dilated, there is a hypersensitivity to light. When the middle ear muscles are not working well, there is a hypersensitivity to sound.

Ø  4-Molecular Autism 2011, 2:3  doi:10.1186/2040-2392-2-3
http://www.molecularautism.com/content/2/1/3


ABSTRACT
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour.


 

APPENDIX

 

 
 

      MicroBiome

Ø  A microbiome is “the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space.”[1][2] This term was originally coined by Joshua Lederberg, who argued the importance of micro-organisms inhabiting the human body in health and disease. Many scientific articles distinguish “microbiome” and “microbiota” to describe either the collective genome of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves, respectively.[3][4][5] However by the original definitions these terms are largely synonymous.

Ø  The human body contains over 10 times more microbial cells than human cells, although the entire microbiome only weighs about 200 grams (7.1 oz),[6][7] with some weight estimates ranging as high as 3 pounds (approximately 48 ounces or 1,400 grams). Some consider it to be a “newly discovered organ” since its existence was not generally recognized until the late 1990s and it is understood to potentially have overwhelming impact on human health.

 
 

[8] Modern DNA sequencing techniques have enabled researchers to find the majority of these microbes, since the majority of them cannot be cultured in a lab using current techniques. The human microbiome may be implicated in auto-immune diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and perhaps some cancers. Common obesity might also be aggravated by a poor mix of microbes in the gut. Since some of the microbes in our body can modify the production of neurotransmitters known to be found in the brain, we may also find some relief for schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder and other neuro-chemical imbalances.

Ø  Microbiomes are being characterized in many other environments as well, including soil, seawater and freshwater systems. It is believed that endosymbiosis originally gave rise to more complex organisms, and continued to play a fundamental role in guiding their evolution and expansion into new niches.

Ø  The microbes being discussed are generally non-pathogenic (do not cause disease unless they grow abnormally); they exist in harmony and symbiotically with their hosts.

 
 

[9]

Ø  Researchers have learned that much of the population of microbes found in the human body are not bacteria but a very old class of single-celled organisms called archaea.

 
 

[9]

Ø  Autistic populations have a unique microbiome consisting of more clostridial species.[41] Half of all autistic children with gastrointestinal dysfunction were found to have the bacteria Sutterella which was completely absent in non-autistic children with gastrointestinal dysfunction.

 
 

[42]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbiome

 

 
 

 
Epigenetics

 Child Dev. 2013 January ; 84(1): 89–103. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01759.x.

 
Genes ~ Methylation Pathways
Randolph-Gips and Srinivasan Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics 2012 2:17   doi:10.1186/2043-9113-2-17
WWW.JCLINBIOINFORMATICS.COM/CONTENT/2/1/17

 
 

NOTE: Proposed interactions between various elements implicated in autism.

 

Ø  “The Science of Compassion: Origins, Measures, and Interventions - Stephen Porges, Ph.D.”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYXa_BX2cE8&index=2&list=PLCw9MZ6l8srW97TR299n9j-Du6Br434wY

 

 
 

 

Ø  “An Explination of the Poly Vagal Theory”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_E7MHn00Tc&index=2&list=PLI6YL1633m1qU9SaoKj-L04esMgrAM0j1

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_E7MHn00Tc&index=2&list=PLI6YL1633m1qU9SaoKj-L04esMgrAM0j1

 

 

 
 

Gluten Free/Casein Free; Specific Carbohydrate

“There are anecdotal reports of improvement of autistic behavior on restricted diets. Some experimental studies have reported improvements reported include socialization, speech, strange and unusual behavior [108,109], stereotyped behaviors, attention/hyperactivity [110] and physiological symptoms [109] One study of the casein/gluten free diet considered children with and without GI symptoms separately. They found greater improvement in autistic behaviors in children with gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those without [109]. The reported improvements may be due to several reasons. Removal of allergens may result in lessened autoimmune reactions [66]. Removal of gluten may reduce intestinal permeability [103,105]. Removal of dietary proteins for which there is insufficient enzymic activity may reduce dysbiosis [111]”*1&2.

 

 
 

The specific carbohydrate diet (SCD)

“This was first introduced and described by Gottschall [33], as one of the methods for autism treatment. Its purpose is to alleviate symptoms of malabsorption and prevent growth of pathogenic intestinal microflora. The diet mainly recommends monosaccharides, whose sources are fruit, some vegetables and honey whereas the consumption of complex carbohydrates are restricted. Polysaccharides take much longer to digest than monosaccharides and, being thus abnormally, (asymmetrically), distributed in the gastrointestinal tract, may lead to difficulties of absorption where residual food becomes a breeding ground for pathogenic intestinal flora. Yeast overgrowth and bacteria can cause intestinal dysbiosis, (intestinal catarrh), with the formation of bacterial and fungal products as well as excessive production of intestinal mucus [10, 30]. The main aim of this diet is to restore normal function of the intestine and to prevent the development of intestinal pathogenic microorganisms. Recommended constituents are meat, eggs, natural cheeses, homemade yogurt, vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, onions, spinach, peppers), fresh fruit, nuts (almonds, brazil nuts, walnuts), soaked lentils and beans [33].

A dietary therapy is insufficient alone to effectively treat autism. Many studies demonstrate the need to supplement the nutritional deficiencies of autistic patients with fatty acids omega-3, probiotics, vitamins and minerals in combination with medical and psychological interventions. A properly designed elimination diet tailored to the patient’s individual may also lead to relief of the autism symptoms and the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Parents and caregivers should therefore be aware of the benefits of nutritional therapy and need for proper monitoring the treatment of patients with ASD”*3

Ø  2-Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International Volume 2013, Article ID 729349, 11 pageshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3747333/
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/729349

ABSTRACT
Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption.The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin andmilk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG), anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA)-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLADQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE); specific systemic antibodies:
𝛼-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG), deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG), total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝛾, and 𝜔), 𝛽-lactoglobulin IgG, 𝛼-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and 𝛼-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

3-HOW NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIET AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS CAN AFFECT AUTISM. A REVIEW
Anna Kawicka, Bo
żena Regulska-Ilow Department of Dietetics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland

ABSTRACT
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient’s lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are mphasizesed by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and mphasiz. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients’ health. It is believed that both genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of the disease. Moreover, expert opinion mphasizes the importance of making an adequate diagnosis when the first symptoms of autism start appearing which can be both psychological, gastro-intestinal and metabolic ones. Conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioural and dietary therapy together with pharmacotherapy. For example, adapting an appropriate diet could help alleviate the disease severity, as well as the psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Much scientific research has indicated that pathogenesis of autism may have a beginning already in foetal life. During pregnancy, specialists should take special heed of metabolic disorders, which can increase the risk of ASD in children. One of the dietician’s tasks are to properly assess the nutritional status of mothers before and during pregnancy, thereby allowing changes in nutrition to be made wherever necessary in order that metabolic indicators be improved. Thus an important part of autism therapy is the improving patient’s nutritional status to prevent the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Adopting diets and tailored to individual disease symptoms, is linked to the nutritional requirements and food preferences of the patient. Specialists also emphasise that continual monitoring of the diet and nutritional status of children with ASD is required. It is also essential to start adequate dietary management in autistic patients with overweight, obesity or wasting, caused by improper nutrition. Frequently only a dietary therapy is insufficient to effectively treat autism. Many studies demonstrate the need to supplement the nutritional deficiencies of autistic patients with fatty acids omega-3, probiotics, vitamins and minerals in combination with medical and psychological interventions. A properly designed elimination diet adapted to the patient’s individual may also lead to relief of the autism symptoms and the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Parents and caregivers should therefore be aware of the benefits of nutritional therapy and need for proper monitoring the treatment of patients.

 

 

Bhagavati Harris ~ Health & Wellness Coach,  Nutritional Consultant, Ayurvedic Health Educator, Certified Enneagram Practitioner, Certified Emotional Freedom Practitioner, Certified Yoga Instructor, & Personal Trainer.

 

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